In these materials, the decay product 40 Ar is able to escape the liquid molten rock, but starts to accumulate when the rock solidifies recrystallizes.

### Radiometric dating

The amount of argon sublimation that occurs is a function of the purity of the sample, the composition of the mother material, and a number of other factors. Time since recrystallization is calculated by measuring the ratio of the amount of 40 Ar accumulated to the amount of 40 K remaining.

The long half-life of 40 K allows the method to be used to calculate the absolute age of samples older than a few thousand years. The quickly cooled lavas that make nearly ideal samples for K—Ar dating also preserve a record of the direction and intensity of the local magnetic field as the sample cooled past the Curie temperature of iron. The geomagnetic polarity time scale was calibrated largely using K—Ar dating.

## Argon–argon dating

Potassium naturally occurs in 3 isotopes: Conversion to stable 40 Ca occurs via electron emission beta decay in Conversion to stable 40 Ar occurs via electron capture in the remaining Argon, being a noble gas , is a minor component of most rock samples of geochronological interest: When 40 K decays to 40 Ar argon , the atom typically remains trapped within the lattice because it is larger than the spaces between the other atoms in a mineral crystal.

Entrained argon—diffused argon that fails to escape from the magma—may again become trapped in crystals when magma cools to become solid rock again. After the recrystallization of magma, more 40 K will decay and 40 Ar will again accumulate, along with the entrained argon atoms, trapped in the mineral crystals.

Measurement of the quantity of 40 Ar atoms is used to compute the amount of time that has passed since a rock sample has solidified. Despite 40 Ca being the favored daughter nuclide, it is rarely useful in dating because calcium is so common in the crust, with 40 Ca being the most abundant isotope.

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Thus, the amount of calcium originally present is not known and can vary enough to confound measurements of the small increases produced by radioactive decay. The ratio of the amount of 40 Ar to that of 40 K is directly related to the time elapsed since the rock was cool enough to trap the Ar by the equation.

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The scale factor 0. In practice, each of these values may be expressed as a proportion of the total potassium present, as only relative, not absolute, quantities are required.

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## K-Ar dating calculation (video) | Khan Academy

To obtain the content ratio of isotopes 40 Ar to 40 K in a rock or mineral, the amount of Ar is measured by mass spectrometry of the gases released when a rock sample is volatilized in vacuum. The potassium is quantified by flame photometry or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dating minerals may provide age information on a rock, but assumptions must be made.

Minerals usually only record the last time they cooled down below the closure temperature, and this may not represent all of the events which the rock has undergone, and may not match the age of intrusion. Thus, discretion and interpretation of age dating is essential. This technique allows the errors involved in K-Ar dating to be checked.

Argon—argon dating has the advantage of not requiring determinations of potassium.

## K-Ar dating calculation

Modern methods of analysis allow individual regions of crystals to be investigated. This method is important as it allows crystals forming and cooling during different events to be identified. One problem with argon-argon dating has been a slight discrepancy with other methods of dating.

Thus the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction when the dinosaurs died out - previously dated at Similarly, the Permian-Triassic extinction is now dated at From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.